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Rare blood types: what they are and how to know if you have one

Blood is a vital element in keeping a human being alive, as it is responsible for a number of tasks that keep our body in balance. Therefore, knowing your blood type is essential before undergoing surgery or receiving transfusions. However, among the different types that exist, there are those that are considered extremely rare. Below, learn more about what rare blood types are and how to know if you have one.

What are blood and blood groups?

Blood is present in the internal region of our body and is considered a living tissue, capable of transporting oxygen directly to the lungs, helping to defend the body from infectious agents, promoting coagulation, transporting already assimilated food to the cells and even collecting part of it. waste and carry it to the kidneys to be eliminated in the urine.

Blood groups are made up of a set of groups that bring together and differentiate the different types of human blood. This categorization is essential because receiving an inappropriate blood type can lead to death, so it is necessary to analyze all the particularities of each blood and group them.

In Brazil, blood typing takes into account two main factors, the ABO group (A, B, AB and O) and the Rh factor (positive and negative). However, it is possible to find numerous other classifications, which differentiate one tissue from another, for example, based on the type of antigen present. These antigens are proteins on the surface of red blood cells (blood cells), which help make the characteristics of your blood even more precise when you donate or receive a transfusion.

What are rare bloods?

blood bag O

According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT), a blood type can be considered rare when it appears in one person in every thousand inhabitants of a civilization. So, the rarity of blood depends, for example, on where it is found: it is possible that a phenotype considered rare is abundant among the indigenous populations of South America, but uncommon in the rest of the world, so it would be considered rare blood. . Considering this observation, it is possible that a blood is rare in some communities and very common in others.

Of the rare blood types, many consider “golden blood” to be the most difficult to find. Also called “Rh null blood”, it is very precious for saving human lives, as it can be donated to anyone who falls into the traditional blood group with Rh positive and negative. However, it can be considered a disadvantage for the host, as they can only receive a transfusion of other Rh null blood –– so if finding one person with golden blood is already difficult, imagine finding two.

In Brazil, in addition to golden blood, there are other blood groups considered rare because they are not very present in the Brazilian population, such as AB-, B- and AB+.

How do you know if you have a rare blood type?

To identify your blood and find out whether it has rare characteristics or not, you need to carry out a test called “blood typing”, which will identify which ABO group you belong to and identify the antigens present (or absent) on the red box of blood cells.

The post Rare Blood Types: What They Are and How to Know If You Have One appeared first on Olhar Digital.

Source: Olhar Digital



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